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What Causes a Bump on the Bottom of the Foot?

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A bump on the bottom of the foot may cause a person discomfort or pain when walking. There are a variety of conditions that may cause bumps on the feet, some of which require medical treatment.

This article explores the various causes of a bump on the bottom of the foot and how a person can treat each cause.

Causes

A bump on the bottom of the foot may be caused by:

1. Uneven weight distribution
If certain bones in the foot are misaligned, it may cause uneven weight distribution.

Sometimes, the long bones behind the toes (metatarsals) become misaligned. This affects the way weight is distributed across the ball of the foot as a person walks.

Uneven weight distribution in the foot means some areas absorb more pressure than others. These may cause calluses to form on the ball of the foot.

Bumps caused by uneven weight distribution tend to occur in people with diabetes.

If a person with diabetes develops lumps or calluses on their feet, they should monitor them carefully and speak to a doctor. If left untreated, these lumps can cause ulcers.

Foot ulceration is the most common lower-extremity complication for people with diabetes.

2. Limited movement of the big toe joint

If a person’s big toe joint does not move correctly when they walk, an excessive force is applied to the bottom of their big toe.

A callus may develop under their big toe and the bone may become enlarged.

3. Plantar fibromas

Plantar fibromas are nodular masses that can form in the arch of a person’s foot.

These non-cancerous tumors form in the plantar fascia, which is the ligament in the arch of the foot.

Researchers are unsure why some people get plantar fibromas, but risk factors include tendon damage, a medication called Dilantin, and genetics.

4. Dyshidrotic eczema

Dyshidrotic eczema may cause bumps on the bottom of the foot that are itchy and filled with fluid.

Doctors do not know what causes this type of eczema, but it has been linked to allergies and stress. Dyshidrotic eczema can also cause skin that is:

  • flakey
  • cracked
  • painful to touch

5. Plantar warts

Plantar warts may form on the bottom of a person’s foot if they have human papillomavirus (HPV). These small, fleshy bumps may be tender to walk on. They usually heal without treatment.

6. Bursitis

Bursitis is an inflammation of the natural cushions between bones and soft tissue. Caused by excess friction or injury, bursitis may cause a bump on the bottom of the foot.

7. Cysts

Cysts are fluid-filled sacs that form with no accompanying symptoms. Cysts are normally benign (harmless). Cysts can develop anywhere on the body, including on the bottom of a person’s foot.

8. Synovial sarcoma

A synovial sarcoma is a type of soft-tissue sarcoma (cancer) that appears as a lump or swelling. It may affect the bottom of the foot and can also cause pain or numbness.

Sarcomas are harmful and may spread to other areas of the body if left untreated.

The American Cancer Society estimate that 13,040 Americans will receive a diagnosis of soft-tissue sarcoma in 2018.

9. Haglund’s deformity

Haglund’s deformity is a bump on the back of the foot or heel that forms under the Achilles tendon. It is often confused with Achilles tendonitis.

When the bump rubs against a person’s shoes, it may cause pain and irritation.

Diagnosis

If a person has a bump on the bottom of their foot that does not go away after a few days or is causing pain or discomfort, they should speak to their doctor.

The doctor can examine the feet and ask questions about a person’s medical history to determine the cause.

Once the doctor has diagnosed the cause, the doctor can recommend the best course of treatment.

Treatment

Treatment will be recommended based on the cause diagnosed.

Treatment for a bump on the bottom of the foot varies depending on the cause.

Treatments for each cause are explored below:

Limited movement of the big toe joint

A doctor may recommend functional foot orthosis for someone with limited movement of their big toe joint.

This treatment helps to restore normal movement in the joint. Once the joint can move properly, it relieves the pressure under the big toe, and a person can treat the callus.

Uneven weight distribution

A molded insole or orthotic can help treat bumps caused by uneven weight distribution. This helps to remove the pressure from the balls of the feet.

Plantar fibromas

Foot orthotics may relieve pressure from the arch of the foot (plantar fascia) and help reduce the size of the nodules.

It is also possible to remove the mass surgically. However, to ensure the plantar fibromas do not come back, it may be necessary to remove most of the plantar fascia.

A person may need to wear orthotics after surgery.

Dyshidrotic eczema

A doctor may prescribe corticosteroids or antihistamines for dyshidrotic eczema. Reducing stress may also help treat dyshidrotic eczema.

Plantar warts

Plantar warts do not usually need treatment. However, if they bleed, change color, or cause noticeable discomfort, a person should speak to their doctor. The doctor can determine whether they should be removed.

There are many ways to remove warts. A 2006 study notes that cryotherapy, which involves using liquid nitrogen to remove the wart, has the highest quality of clinical evidence to support its effectiveness.

Bursitis

People can treat bursitis with:

  • rest
  • anti-inflammatory medications
  • ice

If the condition does not improve, a doctor may recommend corticosteroids and physical therapy. Surgery may be needed in severe cases.

Cysts

A doctor can drain cysts using a sterile needle. For more significant cysts, surgery may be needed. Unlike blisters, it is not a good idea to try to drain a cyst at home.

Synovial sarcoma

A synovial sarcoma is malignant and always requires medical treatment. A surgeon can also remove it using surgery. A person may also need chemotherapy or radiotherapy to help recovery.

Haglund’s deformity

A person can often treat Haglund’s deformity with home remedies, such as:

  • wearing open back shoes
  • taking anti-inflammatory medications
  • icing the area to reduce inflammation

If home remedies are not effective, the following treatments are available:

  • ultrasound treatment
  • soft tissue massage
  • orthotics
  • heel pads
  • immobilizing boots

Surgery is also an option if other treatments are not effective.

Takeaway

There are several different causes of a bump on the bottom of the foot. Understanding these helps a person determine why they have one and take the best course of action.

It is always a good idea to speak to a doctor to get a proper diagnosis. A doctor can recommend an appropriate treatment and steps a person can take to prevent bumps from occurring in the future.

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Parents, Kids Spend More Time Discussing How To Use Mobile Technology Than Talking About Content

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ANN ARBOR—Most parents would agree that one of the of the biggest modern parenting challenges is monitoring a child’s online activity.

A new study appearing in the Journal of Child and Family Studies found that parents spend more time talking with kids about the mechanics of using their mobile devices than they do about what their kids watch and download on those devices.

The findings came from a small, recent study of 75 children and their families, led by researcher Sarah Domoff, then a postdoctoral fellow at University of Michigan Center for Human Growth and Development. The children wore recording devices at home, which recorded talking, conversations or other sounds nearby, as well as audible screen media use.

Domoff, now an assistant professor at Central Michigan University, said the findings revealed some concerning trends in how families and children communicate about media today. Specifically, the researchers observed minimal conversation about the content of programming that children were watching.

Additionally, they learned that other family members appear to play an important role when content is discussed. Children––not parents––initiated most conversations about content, and older siblings played a much bigger role than parents in content mediation for younger siblings. Also, the study found that children as young as toddlers were exposed to multiple media sources at one time, or media multitasking.

Other findings include:

  • Negotiations and conflict are common among parents and children.
  • Parallel family media use is common, meaning different family members use their own devices at the same time.

“One of the most challenging aspects of parenting today is being aware of what children are exposed to online, particularly content delivered via mobile devices,” Domoff said.

“Thus, it is critical that parents utilize privacy settings and restrictions to protect children from certain content. Ideally, this would occur before the child received their own mobile device.”

Domoff recommends developing a family media plan. In 2016, The American Academy of Pediatrics released a tool that helps families set different goals and media use rules based on individual needs, she said.

It’s also troubling that some apps downloaded by children include advertising or request in-app purchases, she said. Parents can identify these apps by using Common Sense Media’s app review.

Parents can also recruit older children to help younger siblings make good content choices.

The study aimed to identify themes of parental mediation and family communication around mobile media devices. There’s a dearth of scientific data in this area compared to television and video games, but studies show that parental mediation leads to better outcomes for children.

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Internet Therapy Apps Reduce Depression Symptoms

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BLOOMINGTON, Ind. — In a sweeping new study, Indiana University psychologists have found that a series of self-guided, internet-based therapy platforms effectively reduce depression.

The work, which reviewed 21 pre-existing studies with a total of 4,781 participants, was published in the November issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research. The study was led by Lorenzo Lorenzo-Luaces, an assistant professor of clinical psychology in the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.

In the past several years, many internet-based apps and websites have made claims to treat depression. The subjects of the IU study were specifically those applications that provide treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy, a form of psychotherapy that focuses on changing thought patterns and behavior to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mental disorders.

Previous studies had examined the effectiveness of individual internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy apps, or iCBT, using a range of methods. Until this study, however, no review had examined whether the effects of these treatments were inflated by excluding patients with more severe depression or additional conditions such as anxiety or alcohol abuse.

“Before this study, I thought past studies were probably focused on people with very mild depression, those who did not have other mental health problems, and were at low risk for suicide,” Lorenzo-Luaces said.

“To my surprise, that was not the case. The science suggests that these apps and platforms can help a large number of people.”

For Lorenzo-Luaces, internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy apps are an important new tool for addressing a major public health issue: that individuals with mental health disorders like depression far outnumber the mental health providers available to treat them.

“Close to one in four people meet the criteria for major depressive disorder,” he said.

“If you include people with minor depression or who have been depressed for a week or a month with a few symptoms, the number grows, exceeding the number of psychologists who can serve them.”

People with depression are also expensive for the health care system, he added.

“They tend to visit primary-care physicians more often than others,” Lorenzo-Luaces said.

“They have more medical problems, and their depression sometimes gets in the way of their taking their medication for other medical problems.”

By conducting a “meta-regression analysis” of 21 studies, Lorenzo-Luaces and collaborators decisively determined that internet-based therapy platforms effectively alleviate depression. A central question was determining whether previous studies distorted the strength of these systems’ effects by excluding people with severe depression.

The conclusion was that the apps worked in cases of mild, moderate and severe depression.

Many of the studies in the analysis compared use of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy apps to placement on a wait list for therapy or the use of a “fake app” that made weak recommendations to the user. In these cases, the iCBT apps worked significantly better.

“This is not to say that you should stop taking your medication and go to the nearest app store,” added Lorenzo-Luaces, who said both face-to-face therapy and antidepressants may still prove to be more effective than the iCBT apps alone.

“People tend to do better when they have a little bit of guidance,” he said. But he added that a 10- to 15-minute check-in may be sufficient for many people, freeing health care providers to see more patients.

App-based therapy also has an advantage in situations where access to face-to-face therapy is limited due to logistical barriers, such as long distances in rural areas or inflexible work schedules.

“ICBT apps take the methods we have learned and make them available to the many people who could benefit from them,” Lorenzo-Luaces said.

“It’s an exciting development.”

 

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New Study Finds Employee Incentives Can Lead To Unethical Behavior In The Workplace

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Considering end-of-year bonuses for your employees? Supervisors be forewarned, a new study finds that while incentive rewards can help motivate and increase employee performance it can also lead to unethical behavior in the workplace.

“Goal fixation can have a profound impact on employee behavior, and the damaging effects appear to be growing stronger in today’s competitive business landscape,” says Bill Becker, co-author of the study and associate professor of management in the Pamplin College of Business at Virginia Tech.

The study, “The effects of goals and pay structure on managerial reporting dishonesty,” provides valuable insight into the relationship between pay structures and motivation.

Findings suggest that setting compensation goals can increase dishonesty when managers are also paid a bonus for hitting certain targets.

“These unintended negative consequences can lead to dishonesty, unethical behavior, increased risk-taking, escalation of commitment, and depletion of self-control,” says Becker.

The study points to observations of unethical behaviors in the workplace that include employees falsifying or manipulating financial reporting information as well as time and expense reports.

For example, service professionals such as auditors, contractors, lawyers, and consultants who report hours billed against a target budget is often based on a fixed contract price.

“This causes potential for both under-reporting and over-reporting costs, which can undermine organizational objectives and negatively impact the interest of the firm,” says Becker.

“Using purely monetary incentives is almost always a double edged sword.”

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